What Is Computer Science?

What is Computer Science?

Computer science (or computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. Computer science has many sub-fields; some emphasize the computation of specific results (such as computer graphics), while others relate to properties of computational problems (such as computational complexity theory). Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations.
For example, programming language theory studies approaches to describing computations, while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems. A further subfield, human-computer interaction, focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable and universally accessible to people.

History of Computer Science
The early foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks, such as the abacus, have existed since antiquity. Wilhelm Schickard built the first mechanical calculator in 1623. Charles Babbage designed a difference engine in Victorian times (between 1837 and 1901)  helped by Ada Lovelace. Around 1900, the IBM corporation sold punch-card machines. However, all of these machines were constrained to perform a single task, or at best some subset of all possible tasks.

During the 1940s, as newer and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general.
Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1960s, with the creation of the first computer science departments and degree programs.  Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own right.

Many initially believed it impossible that "computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study" though it was in the "late fifties" that it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population. It is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM (short for International Business Machines) released the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709 computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM [computer] was frustrating...if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was very much in its developmental stages, and such issues were commonplace.

Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computer science technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift from computers being used solely by experts or professionals to more a more widespread user base. By the 1990s, computers became accepted as being the norm within everyday life. During this time data entry was a primary component of the use of computers, many preferring to streamline their business practices through the use of a computer. This also gave the additional benefit of removing the need of large amounts of documentation and file records which consumed much-needed physical space within offices.

Major Achievements in Computer Science

German military used the Enigma machine during World War II for communication they thought to be secret. The large-scale decryption of Enigma traffic at Bletchley Park was an important factor that contributed to Allied victory in WWII. Despite its relatively short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society. These include:

Applications within computer science
A formal definition of computation and computability, and proof that there are computationally unsolvable and intractable problems.
The concept of a programming language, a tool for the precise expression of methodological information at various levels of abstraction.

Applications outside of computing
Sparked the Digital Revolution which led to the current Information Age and the Internet.
In cryptography, breaking the Enigma machine was an important factor contributing to the Allied victory in World War II.
Scientific computing enabled advanced study of the mind and mapping the human genome was possible with Human Genome Project. Distributed computing projects like Folding@home explore protein folding.
Algorithmic trading has increased the efficiency and liquidity of financial markets by using artificial intelligence, machine learning and other statistical/numerical techniques on a large scale.

Relationship with other fields

Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy, to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers.

The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM”turingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist. Three months later in the same journal, comptologist was suggested, followed next year by hypologist. Recently the term computics has been suggested. Infomatik was a term used in Europe with more frequency.

The renowned computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra stated, "Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes." The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science.

For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering, while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. Computer science is sometimes criticized as being insufficiently scientific, a view espoused in the statement "Science is to computer science as hydrodynamics is to plumbing", credited to Stan Kelly-Bootle and others. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research has also often crossed into other disciplines, such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, physics (see quantum computing), and linguistics.
Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines. Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as Kurt del and Alan Turing, and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as mathematical logic, category theory, domain theory, and algebra.

The relationship between computer science and software engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "software engineering" means, and how computer science is defined. David Parnas, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines.
The academic political and funding aspects of computer science tend to have roots as to whether a department in the U.S. formed with either a mathematical emphasis or an engineering emphasis. In general, electrical engineering-based computer science departments have tended to succeed as computer science and/or engineering departments.
Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.

Fields of Computer Science
Computer science searches for concepts and formal proofs to explain and describe computational systems of interest. As with all sciences, these theories can then be utilized to synthesize practical engineering applications, which in turn may suggest new systems to be studied and analyzed. While the ACM Computing Classification System can be used to split computer science up into different topics of fields, a more descriptive breakdown follows:

Mathematical foundations

Mathematical logic: Boolean logic and other ways of modeling logical queries; the uses and limitations of formal proof methods.

Number theory: Theory of proofs and heuristics for finding proofs in the simple domain of integers. Used in cryptography as well as a test domain in artificial intelligence.

Graph theory: Foundations for data structures and searching algorithms.

Type theory: Formal analysis of the types of data, and the use of these types to understand properties of programs, especially program safety.

Category theory: Category theory provides a means of capturing all of math and computation in a single synthesis.

Computational geometry: The study of algorithms to solve problems stated in terms of geometry.

Numerical analysis: Foundations for algorithms in discrete mathematics, as well as the study of the limitations of floating point computation, including round-off errors.

Theory of computation

Automata theory: Different logical structures for solving problems.
Computability theory: What is calculable with the current models of computers. Proofs developed by Alan Turing and others provide insight into the possibilities of what can be computed and what cannot.
Computational complexity theory: Fundamental bounds (especially time and storage space) on classes of computations.
Quantum computing theory: Representation and manipulation of data using the quantum properties of particles and quantum mechanism.

Algorithms and data structures
Analysis of algorithms: Time and space complexity of algorithms.
Algorithms: Formal logical processes used for computation, and the efficiency of these processes.
Data structures: The organization of and rules for the manipulation of data.

Programming languages and compilers

Compilers: Ways of translating computer programs, usually from higher level languages to lower level ones.
Interpreters : A program that takes in as input a computer program and executes it.
Programming languages: Formal language paradigms for expressing algorithms, and the properties of these languages (e.g., what problems they are suited to solve).

Concurrent, parallel, and distributed systems

Concurrency: The theory and practice of simultaneous computation; data safety in any multitasking or multithreaded environment.
Distributed computing: Computing using multiple computing devices over a network to accomplish a common objective or task and thereby reducing the latency involved in single processor contributions for any task.
Parallel computing: Computing using multiple concurrent threads of execution.
Software engineering
Algorithm design: Using ideas from algorithm theory to creatively design solutions to real tasks
Computer programming: The practice of using a programming language to implement algorithms
Formal methods: Mathematical approaches for describing and reasoning about software designs.
Reverse engineering: The application of the scientific method to the understanding of arbitrary existing software
Software development: The principles and practice of designing, developing, and testing programs, as well as proper engineering practices.

System architecture
Computer architecture: The design, organization, optimization and verification of a computer system, mostly about CPUs and memory subsystems (and the bus connecting them).
Computer organization: The implementation of computer architectures, in terms of descriptions of their specific electrical circuitry
Operating systems: Systems for managing computer programs and providing the basis of a useable system.

Computer audio: Algorithms and data structures for the creation, manipulation, storage, and transmission of digital audio recordings. Also important in voice recognition applications.
Networking: Algorithms and protocols for reliably communicating data across different shared or dedicated media, often including error correction.

Computer Security
Cryptography: Applies results from complexity, probability and number theory to invent and break codes.

Data mining: Data mining is the extracting of the relevant data from all the sources of data
Relational databases: Study of algorithms for searching and processing information in documents and databases; closely related to information retrieval.

Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence: The implementation and study of systems that exhibit an autonomous intelligence or behaviour of their own.
Artificial life: The study of digital organisms to learn about biological systems and evolution.
Automated reasoning: Solving engines, such as used in Prolog, which produce steps to a result given a query on a fact and rule database.
Computer vision: Algorithms for identifying three dimensional objects from one or more two dimensional pictures.
Machine learning: Automated creation of a set of rules and axioms based on input.
Natural language processing/Computational linguistics: Automated understanding and generation of human language
Robotics: Algorithms for controlling the behavior of robots.

Visual rendering (or Computer graphics)

Computer graphics: Algorithms both for generating visual images synthetically, and for integrating or altering visual and spatial information sampled from the real world.
Image processing: Determining information from an image through computation.

Human-Computer Interaction
Human computer interaction: The study of making computers and computations useful, usable and universally accessible to people, including the study and design of computer interfaces through which people use computers.

Scientific computing

Bioinformatics: The use of computer science to maintain, analyze, and store biological data, and to assist in solving biological problems such as protein folding, function prediction and phylogeny.
Cognitive Science: Computational modelling of real minds
Computational chemistry: Computational modelling of theoretical chemistry in order to determine chemical structures and properties
Computational neuroscience: Computational modelling of real brains
Computational physics: Numerical simulations of large non-analytic systems
Numerical algorithms: Algorithms for the numerical solution of mathematical problems such as root-finding, integration, the solution of ordinary differential equations and the approximation/evaluation of special functions.
Symbolic mathematics: Manipulation and solution of expressions in symbolic form, also known as Computer algebra.

Didactics of computer science/informatics
Didactics of informatics: The subfield didactics of computer science focuses on cognitive approaches of developing competencies of computer science and specific strategies for analysis, design, implementation and evaluation of excellent lessons in computer science.

Computer Science Education and Training

Some universities teach computer science as a theoretical study of computation and algorithmic reasoning. These programs often feature the theory of computation, analysis of algorithms, formal methods, concurrency theory, databases, computer graphics and systems analysis, among others. They typically also teach computer programming, but treat it as a vessel for the support of other fields of computer science rather than a central focus of high-level study.
Other colleges and universities, as well as secondary schools and vocational programs that teach computer science, emphasize the practice of advanced computer programming rather than the theory of algorithms and computation in their computer science curricula. Such curricula tend to focus on those skills that are important to workers entering the software industry. The practical aspects of computer programming are often referred to as software engineering. However, there is a lot of disagreement over what the term "software engineering" actually means, and whether it is the same thing as programming

What is Business Administration?



The word "administration" is derived from the Middle English word administracioun, which is in turn derived from the French administration, itself derived from the Latin administratio -- a compounding of ad ("to") and ministratio ("give service").
In business, administration consists of the performance or management of business operations and thus the making or implementing of major decisions. Administration can be defined as the universal process of organizing people and resources efficiently so as to direct activities toward common goals and objectives.

Administrator can serve as the title of the general manager or company secretary who reports to a corporate board of directors.  In some organizational analyses, management is viewed as a subset of administration, specifically associated with the technical and mundane elements within an organization's operation. It stands distinct from executive or strategic work.
In other organizational analyses, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of mundane office tasks, usually internally oriented and usually reactive rather than proactive.

The administrative function

The administrative function refers to similar or related activities regarding the handling and processing of information, grouped together to form a function or department. The administrative activity, meanwhile, refer to the different types of work (viz. the handling and processing of incoming and outgoing information) done in this function.
Administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the organization's goals. These "functions" of the administrator were described by Henry Fayol.

Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning function involves establishing goals and arranging them in logical order. Administrators engage in both short-range and long-range planning.

Organizing involves identifying responsibilities to be performed, grouping responsibilities into departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships. The purpose is to achieve coordinated effort among all the elements in the organization. Organizing must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of control within supervisory units.

Staffing means filling job positions with the right people at the right time. It involves determining staffing needs, writing job descriptions, recruiting and screening people to fill the positions.

Directing is leading people  in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization. This involves proper allocation of resources and providing an effective support system. Directing requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people. One of the crucial issues in directing is to find the correct balance between emphasis on staff needs and emphasis on production.

Controlling is the function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations from the organization's plan. This function's purpose is to ensure high-quality performance and satisfactory results while maintaining an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective actions.

Budgeting, exempted from the list above, incorporates most of the administrative functions, beginning with the implementation of a budget plan through the application of budget controls.

What is Project Management?



Project Management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is a methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish. According to the Project Management Institute, the processes are guided through five stages: initiation, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.
Project management can be applied to almost any type of project and is widely used to control the complex processes of software development projects. A project is a finite endeavor--having specific start and completion dates--undertaken to create a unique product or service which brings about beneficial change or added value.
A typical project starts with someone having an idea, which then gains acceptance from a wider group: probably informally through discussion with colleagues and then through a more formal process involving senior management, the management committee or board. This leads to a fund-raising process, which usually causes significant delay, and then if the funding bid is successful the project can start, staff can be appointed and work can begin. This work has to be planned and managed, problems dealt with, until the project concludes, hopefully successfully, and is wound up.

Formal methods of project management offer a framework to manage this process, providing a series of elements “ templates and procedures “ to manage the project through its life cycle. The key elements consist of:

Defining the project accurately, systematically clarifying objectives
Dividing the project up into manageable tasks and stages
Controlling the project through its stages using the project definition as a baseline
Highlighting risks and developing specific procedures to deal with them
Providing mechanisms to deal with quality issues
Clarifying roles to provide the basis for effective teamwork.

The need to provide accountability and effective communication is implicit throughout. This finite characteristic of projects stands in sharp contrast to processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent functional work to repetitively produce the same product or service. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management philosophy, which is the subject of this article.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while adhering to classic project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary--and more ambitious--challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources (money, people, materials, energy, space, provisions, communication, motivation, etc.) to achieve the project goals and objectives.
History of project management

As a discipline, project management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense. In the United States, the forefather of project management is Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool, for being an associate of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management, and for his study of the work and management of Navy ship building. His work is the forerunner to many modern project management tools including the work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed:

the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program; and
the "Critical Path Method" (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.
At the same time, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and cost/schedule control (project control). AACE has continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first ever integrated process for portfolio, program and project management(Total Cost Management Framework).

In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interest of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized the development of what has become
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), containing the standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used throughout the profession. The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has undergone a similar development and instituted the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB). The focus of the ICB also begins with knowledge as a foundation, and adds considerations about relevant experience, interpersonal skills, and competence. Both organizations are now participating in the development of a ISO project management standard.
Project management activities

Project management is composed of several different types of activities such as:

Analysis & design of objectives and events
Planning the work according to the objectives
Assessing and controlling risk (or Risk Management)
Estimating resources
Allocation of resources
Organizing the work
Acquiring human and material resources
Assigning tasks
Directing activities
Controlling project execution
Tracking and reporting progress (Management information system)
Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved
Defining the products of the project
Forecasting future trends in the project
Quality Management
Issues management
Issue solving
Defect prevention
Identifying, managing & controlling changes
Project closure (and project debrief)
Communicating to stakeholders
Increasing/ decreasing a company's workers

The Project Manager
A successful Project Manager must simultaneously manage the four basic elements of a project: resources, time, money, and most importantly, scope. All these elements are interrelated. Each must be managed effectively. All must be managed together if the project, and the project manager, is to be a success.

Resources: people, equipment, material
Time: task durations, dependencies, critical path
Money: costs, contingencies, profit
Scope: project size, goals, requirements

Most literature on project management speaks of the need to manage and balance three elements: people, time, and money. However, the fourth element is the most important and it is the first and last task for a successful project manager.

What Is Software Engineering?

What is Software Engineering?


Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. The term software engineering was popularized during the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference (held in Garmisch, Germany) by its chairman F.L. Bauer, and has been in widespread use since.

Typical formal definitions of software engineering are:

* the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software";

* an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production";  "the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines"

The term ˜software engineering has been used less formally:

* as the informal contemporary term for the broad range of activities that were formerly called programming and systems analysis;

* as the broad term for all aspects of the practice of computer programming, as opposed to the theory of computer programming, which is called computer science;

* as the term embodying the advocacy of a specific approach to computer programming, one that urges that it be treated as an engineering discipline rather than an art or a craft, and advocates the codification of recommended practices.

The discipline of software engineering includes knowledge, tools, and methods for software requirements, software design, software construction, software testing, and software maintenance tasks. Software engineering is related to the disciplines of computer science, computer engineering, management, mathematics, project management, quality management, software ergonomics, and systems engineering.

Software engineering implies a certain level of academic training, professional discipline, and adherence to formal processes that often are not applied in cases of software development. A common analogy is that working in construction does not make one a civil engineer, and so writing code does not make one a software engineer.

Software engineers advocate many different technologies and practices, they use a wide variety of technologies: compilers, code repositories, text editors. They also use a wide variety of practices to carry out and coordinate their efforts

What is Marketing?



There are many definitions of marketing. The better definitions are focused upon customer orientation and satisfaction of customer needs. Just some few examples:

Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. Kotler.

Marketing is the management process that identifies, anticipates and satisfies customer requirements profitably - The Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM).

“Marketing is abut the right product, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price - Adcock.

Marketing is essentially about marshalling the resources of an organization so that they meet the changing needs of the customer on whom the organization depends - Palmer.

Marketing is the process whereby society, to supply its consumption needs, evolves distributive systems composed of participants, who, interacting under constraints - technical (economic) and ethical (social) - create the transactions or flows which resolve market separations and result in exchange and consumption. - Bartles.

"Marketing is a four step process that begins with analyzing and defining a qualified universe of potential users or buyers. After this first phase in the marketing process, a true marketing effort succeeds in capturing the attention of the intended buyers within the targeted universe. Third, systematic effort must be put into getting the prospects to accept the concepts or propositions being offered via the marketing effort. Finally, with all three of the previous steps achieved, the marketer must convert the prospective buyer into an actual buyer by getting them to take the desired action (purchase, rent, call, download, subscribe, refer, sell, follow the law, become a member, etc.)."  Norris

Marketing is the achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer needs better than the competition- Jobber.

The Philosophy Marketing and the Marketing Concept

The marketing concept is a philosophy. It makes the customer, and the satisfaction of his or her needs, the focal point of all business activities. It is driven by senior managers, passionate about delighting their customers.
Marketing is not only much broader than selling, it is not a specialized activity at all. It encompasses the entire business. It is the whole business seen from the point of view of the final result, that is, from the customer's point of view. Concern and responsibility for marketing must therefore permeate all areas of the enterprise. - Drucker.

This customer focused philosophy is known as the 'marketing concept'. The marketing concept is a philosophy, not a system of marketing or an organizational structure. It is founded on the belief that profitable sales and satisfactory returns on investment can only be achieved by identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs and desires. -Barwell.

Implementation of the marketing concept [in the 1990's] requires attention to three basic elements of the marketing concept. These are: Customer orientation; An organization to implement a customer orientation; Long-range customer and societal welfare. -Cohen.

The important elements of the definitions of marketing and the exposition of the concept and the philosophy of marketing are:
Marketing focuses on the satisfaction of customer needs, wants and requirements.
The philosophy of marketing needs to be owned by everyone from within the organization.
Future needs have to be identified and anticipated.
There is normally a focus upon profitability, especially in the corporate sector. However, as public sector organizations and not-for-profit organizations adopt the concept of marketing, this need not always be the case.
More recent definitions recognize the influence of marketing upon society.

What Is Civil Engineering?

What is Civil Engineering?


Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and natural built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.

Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish it from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including: municipal engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering.

From the pyramids of Egypt to the exploration of space, civil engineers have always faced the challenges of the future - advancing civilization and building our quality of life.

Today, the world is undergoing vast changes - the technological revolution, population growth, environmental concerns, and more. All create unique challenges for civil engineers. The next decades will be the most creative, demanding, and rewarding times for civil engineers, and now is the best time to find out if civil engineering is the right career for you.

Throughout history, civil engineers have designed and built facilities that have advanced civilization and have provided for a higher standard of living. Just some examples:

Building the Pyramids: Around 2980 B.C., thousands of workers labored for years to build the pyramids as tombs for kings. The end results continue to endure and amaze.

The Glory of Ancient Rome: The Coliseum is a find example of ancient Roman architectural engineering which was used for gladiatorial games and was even flooded for mock navy battles. It measured approximately 280 by 175 feet and featured four floors, with an overall capacity to accommodate 87,000 people.

The Symbol of London: The majestic Tower Bridge is an iron drawbridge that spans the River Thames. It was completed in 1894, and has two central sections that can be raised to allow large ships to pass.

French Civil Engineering Genius: The French contributed a great deal to the progress of this profession. One of the most innovative civil engineers of all time was Alexander Gustave Eiffel, best known for his ingenious design of the Eiffel Tower. He also designed the support structure of the Statue of Liberty in the USA.

A Shortcut Between East and West: The Panama Canal, one of the greatest engineering achievements in the world, links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to shorten a ship's voyage between New York and California.

A Modern Civil Engineering Wonder: The Hoover Dam in the USA was completed in 1935 and continues to generate unparalleled benefits to the nation through regulation of the Colorado River for water conservation, power production, flood control, recreation, and fish and wildlife enhancement.

Crossing San Francisco Bay: The Golden Gate Bridge in the USA, designed by Joseph Strauss and Charles Ellis, was placed in service in 1937 and was the longest single span (4,200 feet) bridge in the world at the time. It remains today as an international symbol of civil engineering innovation.

The History of the Civil Engineering Profession

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. Civil engineering might be considered properly commencing between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter.

During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC) might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447-438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), and the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC).

Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often used interchangeably. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering began to be used to and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of distinguish it from military engineering.

The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse.  In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society.

In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognizing civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:

"...the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns."



Some of the Civil Engineering Professions

Construction Engineering: As a construction engineer, you will be a builder of our future. The construction phase of a project represents the first tangible result of a design. Using your technical and management skills, you will help turn designs into reality -- on time and within budget. You will apply your knowledge of construction methods and equipment, along with principles of financing, planning, and managing, to turn the designs of other engineers into successful facilities.

Environmental Engineering: The skills of environmental engineers are becoming increasingly important as we attempt to protect the fragile resources of our planet. Environmental engineers translate physical, chemical, and biological processes into systems to destroy toxic substances, remove pollutants from water, reduce non-hazardous solid waste volumes, eliminate contaminants from the air, and develop groundwater supplies. In this field, you might be called upon to resolve problems of providing safe drinking water, cleaning up sites contaminated with hazardous materials, cleaning up and preventing air pollution, treating wastewater, and managing solid wastes.

Geotechnical Engineering: Almost all of the facilities that make up our infrastructure are in, on, or with earth materials, and geotechnical engineering is the discipline that deals with applications of technology to solve these problems. Examples of facilities in the earth are tunnels, deep foundations, and pipelines. Highway pavements and many buildings are supported on the earth. And earth dams, levees, embankments, and slopes are constructed with the earth. In addition, many soil-like waste materials are deposited in containment areas. To design these facilities, geotechnical engineers must conduct analyses based on the principles of mechanics and mathematics. These analyses require input data to quantify the properties of the earth materials, and this information is usually obtained from laboratory or field tests.

Structural Engineering: As a structural engineer, you will face the challenge of analyzing and designing structures to ensure that they safely perform their purpose. They must support their own weight and resist dynamic environmental loads such as hurricanes, earthquakes, blizzards, and floods. Stadiums, arenas, skyscrapers, offshore oil structures, space platforms, amusement park rides, bridges, office buildings, and homes are a few of the many types of projects in which structural engineers are involved. You will develop and utilize knowledge of the properties and behaviors of steel, concrete, aluminum, timber, and plastic as well as new and exotic materials. To make certain that the plans are being followed, you will often be on the construction site inspecting and verifying the work.

Transportation Engineering: Because the quality of a community is directly related to the quality of its transportation system, your function as a transportation engineer will be to move people, goods, and materials safely and efficiently. Your challenge will be to find ways to meet the increasing travel needs on land, air and sea. You will design, construct, and maintain all types of facilities, including highways, railroads, airfields, and ports. An important part of transportation engineering is to upgrade our transportation capability by improving traffic control and mass transit systems, and by introducing high-speed trains, people movers, and other new transportation methods.

Urban Planning: As a professional in this area, you will be concerned with the full development of a community. Analyzing a variety of information will help you coordinate projects, such as projecting street patterns, identifying park and recreation areas, and determining areas for industrial and residential growth. To ensure ready access to your community, coordination with other authorities may be required to integrate freeways, airports, and other related facilities. Successful coordination of a project will require you to be people-oriented as well as technically knowledgeable.

Water Resources: Water is essential to our lives, and as a water resources engineer, you will deal with issues concerning the quality and quantity of water. You will work to prevent floods, to supply water for cities, industry and irrigation, to treat wastewater, to protect beaches, or to manage and redirect rivers. You might be involved in the design, construction, or maintenance of hydroelectric power facilities, canals, dams, pipelines, pumping stations, locks, or seaport facilities.

What Is Computer Engineering ?

What is Computer Engineering?

Computer Engineering is a discipline that encompasses broad areas of: electrical & electronic engineering and computer science. Computer engineers are electrical & electronic engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. In turn, they focus less on power electronics and physics. Some areas computer engineers are involved in are ASIC design, FPGA development, firmware development, software development, hardware-(firmware/software) integration, circuit design, and system-level design and integration.

Computer Engineering has had a major impact on all our lives during the last thirty years. Its impact has been more significant and more pervasive than that of many other disciplines. Think of the mobile phone, the Internet and the Sony PlayStation 2 - ALL products that weren't even imagined 30 years ago, but have now been realized by the ingenuity of the computer engineer.

Computer engineers need not only to understand how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Consider the car. A modern car contains many separate computer systems for controlling such things as the engine timing, the brakes and the air bags. To be able to design and implement such a car, the computer engineer needs a broad theoretical understanding of all these various subsystems & how they interact. This might involve mechanical engineering, thermodynamics and fluids as well as the computer systems themselves.

A computer engineer needs excellent problem solving skills, a good theoretical grounding in the fundamentals of engineering and the practical skills to put theory into practice. Computer engineers may design computer hardware, write computer programs, integrate the various subsystems together or do all three. Computer engineers need good management skills as they often get quickly promoted to project manager type positions. Furthermore, computer engineers need good people skills, as they have to sell their ideas to other engineers, other professionals and members of the public.

Due to increasing job requirements for engineers that can design and manage all forms of computer systems used in industry, some tertiary institutions around the world offer a bachelor's degree generally called "computer engineering’.  Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curricula. As with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and sciences is necessary for computer engineers.

In many institutions, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year, as the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is well beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. The joint IEEE/ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Engineering defines the core knowledge areas of computer engineering as:

* Algorithms
* Computer architecture and organization
* Computer systems engineering
* Circuits and signals
* Database systems
* Digital logic
* Digital signal processing
* Electronics
* Embedded systems
* Human-computer interaction
* Operating systems
* Programming fundamentals
* Social and Professional issues
* Software engineering
* VLSI design and fabrication
* Computer Networking

The breadth of disciplines studied in computer engineering is not limited to the above subjects but can include any subject found in engineering.

What Is Manufacturing Engineering?

What is Manufacturing Engineering?

Manufacturing engineers make things. Everything that manufacturing engineers do is ultimately tied to the production of goods. Almost everything that we use at home, at work, at play”is manufactured. By its official professional definition, manufacturing occurs when the shape, form or properties of a material are altered in a way that adds value. Manufactured goods are everywhere”aircraft structures, machinery, electronics, medical devices, automobile parts, household products, toys, textiles and clothing, cans and bottles”virtually everything we use.

Everything needed in modern society is manufactured.  And manufacturing engineers design, direct and coordinate the processes and production systems for making virtually every kind of product — from beginning to end.  As businesses try to make products better and at less cost, they turn to manufacturing engineers to find out how.

Manufacturing engineers apply scientific principles to the production of goods.  They are key team members in production of a wide range of products ”automobiles, airplanes, tractors, electronics, surgical instruments, toys, building products, foodstuffs, sports and recreational equipment” and on and on.  In all cases, manufacturing engineers design the processes and systems to make products with the required functionality, to high quality standards, available when and where customers prefer, at the best possible price and in ways that are environmentally-friendly.

Manufacturing engineering is a creative activity: manufacturing engineers design, implement, monitor and maintain manufacturing processes. They consult with design engineers in order to achieve the most efficient and cost effective way of producing the highest quality product possible.

Employment is found in numerous industries, such as clothing, food and drink, pharmaceuticals and shipbuilding. Many organizations operate 'cross-functional' teams with the manufacturing engineer involved at every stage, from design and development, to production, research and after-sales service.

Manufacturing engineers have expertise in a wide range of manufacturing technologies and computer and management control systems. They apply state-of-the art technology to meet increasingly competitive business needs.

Typical work activities of Manufacturing Engineers

Roles vary according to the setting but the range of activities common to most manufacturing engineering positions usually includes:

* organizing, planning, commissioning and maintaining production lines;
* improving existing operations, incorporating new methods and processes;
* handling equipment purchase and installation;
* investigating operational problems affecting production and dealing with them in a systematic, methodical manner;
* planning the use of resources and scheduling activities in order to meet an objective;
* preparing manufacturing documentation required for product manufacture;
* co-ordinating projects;
* providing manufacturing data;
* running meetings with other team members;
* identifying ways to reduce production costs;
* managing budgets;
* working with engineering and other departments to produce cost estimates for new designs;
* liaising with research and development departments;
* understanding and analyzing graphs and statistics and other complex information;
* giving presentations to engineers and colleagues in other departments;
* liaising with suppliers and customers;
* training and supervising staff;
* working with regulatory bodies to ensure safety, environmental and design standards are met;
* reading specialist journals and attending training courses and industry meetings in order to keep up to date with the latest technological developments and trends within this and other branches of engineering

What Is Information technology?

What is Information Technology?

Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.

Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever before. The information technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems. When computer and communications technologies are combined, the result is information technology, or "infotech". Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information

What Is Electrical Engineering?

What is Electrical Engineering?

Electrical engineering sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering ” is an engineering field that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of sub-studies including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications.

Electrical engineering may or may not encompass electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, usually outside of the United States, electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits. Another way of looking at the distinction is that electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information.

The History of Electrical Engineering

Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. The first electrical engineer was probably William Gilbert who designed the versorium: a device that detected the presence of statically charged objects. He was also the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity and is credited with establishing the term electricity. However, it was not until the 19th century that research into the subject started to intensify.

Notable developments in this century include the work of George Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism.

During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physics. It was not until the late 19th century that universities started to offer degrees in electrical engineering. The Darmstadt University of Technology founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering worldwide in 1882. In 1883 Darmstadt Universityof Technology and Cornell University introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering, and in 1885 the University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in the United Kingdom. The University of Missouri subsequently established the first department of electrical engineering in the United States in 1886.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison built the world's first large-scale electrical supply network. During this period, the work concerning electrical engineering increased dramatically. In 1882, Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electrical supply network that provided 110 volts direct current to fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan.

In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number of patents related to a competing form of power distribution known as alternating current. In the following years a bitter rivalry between Tesla and Edison, known as the "War of Currents", took place over the preferred method of distribution. AC eventually replaced DC for generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution.

Nikola Tesla

Tesla made long-distance electrical transmission networks possible.  The efforts of the two did much to further electrical engineering”Tesla's work on induction motors and polyphase systems influenced the field for years to come, while Edison's work on telegraphy and his development of the stock ticker proved lucrative for his company, which ultimately became General Electric. However, by the end of the 19th century, other key figures in the progress of electrical engineering were beginning to emerge.

Education and Training in Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electrical engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually four or five years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Applied Science depending upon the university.

The degree generally includes units covering physics, mathematics, computer science, project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the sub-disciplines of electrical engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines towards the end of the degree.

Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering/Master of Science, a Master of Engineering Management, a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering or an Engineer's degree. The Master and Engineer's degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two.

The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia. In the United Kingdom and various other European countries, the Master of Engineering is often considered an undergraduate degree of slightly longer duration than the Bachelor of Engineering.

Practicing Electrical Engineers

In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified. Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa ), Chartered Engineer (in India, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (in much of the European Union).

The advantages of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients".

This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act. In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.

In this way these organizations play an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence. An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law.

Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (which was formed by the merging of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE).

What Is Electronic Engineering?

What is Electronic Engineering?

Electronic engineering is a discipline dealing with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. The term now also covers a large part of electrical engineering degree courses as studied at most European universities. In the U.S., however, electrical engineering implies all the wide electrical disciplines including electronics.

In many areas, electronic engineering is considered to be at the same level as electrical engineering, requiring that more general programmes be called electrical and electronic engineering (many UK universities have departments of Electronic and Electrical Engineering). Both define a broad field that encompasses many subfields including those that deal with power, instrumentation engineering, telecommunications, and semiconductor circuit design amongst many others.

The name electrical engineering is still used to cover electronic engineering amongst some of the older (notably American) universities and graduates there are called electrical engineers.

Some people believe the term electrical engineer should be reserved for those having specialized in power and heavy current or high voltage engineering, while others believe that power is just one subset of electrical engineering (and indeed the term power engineering is used in that industry). Again, in recent years there has been a growth of new separate-entry degree courses such as information and communication engineering, often followed by academic departments of similar name.

The History of Electronic Engineering

The modern discipline of electronic engineering was to a large extent born out of radio and television development and from the large amount of Second World War development of defence systems and weapons. In the interwar years, the subject was known as radio engineering and it was only in the late 1950s that the term electronic engineering started to emerge. In the UK, the subject of electronic engineering became distinct from electrical engineering as a university degree subject around 1960.

Students of electronics and related subjects like radio and telecommunications before this time had to enroll in the electrical engineering department of the university as no university had departments of electronics. Electrical engineering was the nearest subject with which electronic engineering could be aligned, although the similarities in subjects covered (except mathematics and electromagnetism) lasted only for the first year of the three-year course.

What About Electronics?

In the field of electronic engineering, engineers design and test circuits that use the electromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuner circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit.
In designing an integrated circuit, electronics engineers first construct circuit schematics that specify the electrical components and describe the interconnections between them. When completed, VLSI engineers convert the schematics into actual layouts, which map the layers of various conductor and semiconductor materials needed to construct the circuit. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by software (see electronic design automation) but very often requires human fine-tuning to decrease space and power consumption. Once the layout is complete, it can be sent to a fabrication plant for manufacturing.

Integrated circuits and other electrical components can then be assembled on printed circuit boards to form more complicated circuits. Today, printed circuit boards are found in most electronic devices including televisions, computers and audio players.

Typical Electronic Engineering Undergraduate Program

The following is a list of candidate courses in a typical electronic engineering undergraduate program 

Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Antennas: Dipole antennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain.

Network Analysis
Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic devices and circuits

Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, Power supplies.

Digital circuits: of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems
Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems. Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density, function analogy between vectors & functions.

Control Systems
Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams - Mason's rule. Open loop and closed loop (negative unity feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Analysis of steady-state disturbance rejection and noise sensitivity.

Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis and design: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. Discretization of continuous time systems using Zero-Order-Hold (ZOH) and ADC's for digital controller implementation. Limitations of digital controllers: aliasing. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems. Linearization of Nonlinear dynamical systems with state-space realizations in both frequency and time domains. Fundamental concepts of controllability and observability for MIMO LTI systems. State space realizations: observable and controllable canonical form. Ackerman's formula for state-feedback pole placement. Design of full order and reduced order estimators.


Analog communication (UTC)systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne noise conditions.

Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes, GSM, TDMA.

Education and Training

Electronics engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electronic engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually three or four years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Applied Science depending upon the university. Many UK universities also offer Master of Engineering (MEng) degrees at undergraduate level.

The degree generally includes units covering physics, mathematics, project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the subfields of electronic engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more subfields towards the end of the degree.

Some electronics engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Science (MSc), Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (PhD), or an Engineering Doctorate (EngD). The Master degree is being introduced in some European and American Universities as a first degree and the differentiation of an engineer with graduate and postgraduate studies is often difficult. In these cases, experience is taken into account.

The Master and Engineer's degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.

In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified. Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States and Canada), Chartered Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, South Africa and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia) or European Engineer (in much of the European Union).

Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and mathematics as these help to obtain both a qualitative and quantitative description of how such systems will work. Today most engineering work involves the use of computers and it is commonplace to use computer-aided design programs when designing electronic systems. Although most electronic engineers will understand basic circuit theory, the theories employed by engineers generally depend upon the work they do. For example, quantum mechanics and solid state physics might be relevant to an engineer working on VLSI but are largely irrelevant to engineers working with macroscopic electrical systems.

Licensure, Certification, and Regulation

Some countries require a license for one to legally be called an electronics engineer, or an engineer in general. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients".  This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act.  In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.

In this way these organizations play an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where licenses are not required, engineers are subject to the law. For example, much engineering work is done by contract and is therefore covered by contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence.

An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law. In locations where licenses are not required, professional certification may be advantageous.

Professional Bodies

Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). The IEEE claims to produce 30 percent of the world's literature in electrical/electronic engineering, has over 370,000 members, and holds more than 450 IEEE sponsored or cosponsored conferences worldwide each year.

Modern Electronic Engineering

Electronic engineering in Europe is a very broad field that encompasses many subfields including those that deal with, electronic devices and circuit design, control systems, electronics and telecommunications, computer systems, embedded software etc. Many European universities now have departments of Electronics that are completely separate from or have completely replaced their electrical engineering departments.

Overview of Electronic Engineering

Electronics engineering has many subfields. This section describes some of the most popular subfields in electronic engineering. Although there are engineers who focus exclusively on one subfield, there are also many who focus on a combination of subfields.

Electronic Engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the electronic properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.
Signal Processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information.

For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression, error checking and error detection of digital signals.

Telecommunications Engineering deals with the transmission of information across a channel such as a co-axial cable, optical fibre or free space. Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.

Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal's information will be corrupted by noise.
Control Engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial aeroplanes to the cruise control present in many modern cars. It also plays an important role in industrial automation.

Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in a car with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the engine's power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
Instrumentation Engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. These devices are known as instrumentation.

The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. For example, radar guns use the Doppler effect to measure the speed of oncoming vehicles. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.

Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering.

Computer Engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the design of PDAs or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering, which is usually considered a separate discipline. Desktop computers represent a tiny fraction of the devices a computer engineer might work on, as computer-like architectures are now found in a range of devices including video game consoles and DVD players. .

Project Engineering: For most engineers not involved at the cutting edge of system design and development, technical work accounts for only a fraction of the work they do. A lot of time is also spent on tasks such as discussing proposals with clients, preparing budgets and determining project schedules. Many senior engineers manage a team of technicians or other engineers and for this reason project management skills are important. Most engineering projects involve some form of documentation and strong written communication skills are therefore very important.

The workplaces of electronics engineers are just as varied as the types of work they do. Electronics engineers may be found in the pristine laboratory environment of a fabrication plant, the offices of a consulting firm or in a research laboratory. During their working life, electronics engineers may find themselves supervising a wide range of individuals including scientists, electricians, computer programmers and other engineers.

What Is Management Science?

What is Management Science?

Management science (MS), is the discipline of using a mathematical model, and other analytical methods, to help make better business management decisions. The field is also known as operations research (OR) in the United States or operational research in the United Kingdom, and these 3 terms are commonly interchanged and used to describe the same field.

Some of the fields that are incorporated into Management Science include: decision analysis, optimization, simulation, forecasting, game theory, network/transportation forecasting models, mathematical modeling, data mining, probability and statistics, resources allocation, project management as well as many others.

The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. Of course, the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups.

Management Science is also concerned with so-called soft-operational analysis, which concerns methods for strategic planning, strategic decision support, and Problem Structuring Methods (PSM). At this level of abstraction, mathematical modelling and simulation will not suffice. Therefore, during the past 30 years, a number of non-quantified modelling methods have been developed. These include morphological analysis and various forms of influence diagrams

What Is Industrial Engineering?

What is Industrial Engineering?


Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design of production systems. The Industrial Engineer analyzes and specifies integrated components of people, machines, and facilities to create efficient and effective systems that produce goods and services beneficial to mankind.

What is a Production System?:
Anywhere there is a "value-added" enterprise, there is a production process. The IE focuses on "how" a product is made or "how" a service is rendered. The goal of Industrial Engineering is improving the "how."

What is meant by improving?:
Generally, the criteria for judging improvement are productivity and quality. Productivity means getting more from the resources being expended, namely being efficient. Quality judges the value or effectiveness of the output.

Why emphasize the system?:
Industrial Engineering focuses on systems design. Production processes are composed of many interacting parts, all of whom work together. Experience has taught that changes to one portion may not result in improvements to the whole. Thus Industrial Engineers generally work with tools that emphasize systems analysis and design.

Is Industrial Engineering strictly "industrial"?:

Since production systems are found anywhere there is an attempt to provide a service, as well as produce a part, the methodologies of Industrial Engineering are applicable. In that sense, the adjective "industrial" should be interpreted as "industrious", referring to the process of being skillful and careful. In many departments, Industrial Engineering is called "Industrial and Systems Engineering" in an attempt to make it clear that the industrial adjective is intended to be generic.

Are Industrial Engineers directly concerned with manufacturing?:

All industrial engineers take at least one manufacturing course, which deals with manufacturing processes, and other courses closely associated with manufacturing. Every IE is therefore knowledgeable about metal working machinery and processes. Further, related courses address manufacturing as a system. At NC State the IE department also includes furniture manufacturing, which makes students aware of wood working machinery and processes. The manufacturing industry has and remains a manifest concern of Industrial Engineering.

How is Industrial Engineering considered Engineering?:
In general engineers are concerned with the analysis and design of systems. Electrical Engineers are concerned with electrical systems, Mechanical Engineers are concerned with mechanical systems, Chemical Engineers are concerned with chemical systems, and so forth. Industrial Engineers are concerned with production systems. In general, engineering is the application of science and mathematics to the development of products and services useful to mankind. Industrial Engineering focuses on the "way" those products and services are made, using the same approaches that other engineers apply in the development of the product or service, and for the same purpose.

How is Industrial Engineering like other engineering disciplines?:

The Industrial Engineer is trained in the same basic way as other engineers. They take the same foundation courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, humanities, and social sciences. Thy also take some of the basic physical engineering sciences like thermodynamic, circuits, statics, and solids. They take Industrial Engineering specialty courses in their later years. Like other engineering courses, the industrial engineering courses employ mathematical models as a central device for understanding their systems.

What Makes Industrial Engineering different from other engineering disciplines?:

Fundamentally, Industrial Engineering has no basic physical science like mechanics, chemistry, or electricity. Also because a major component in any production system is people, Industrial Engineering has a person portion. At NC State, the human aspect is called ergonomics, although elsewhere it is called human factors. A more subtle difference between Industrial Engineering than other engineering disciplines is the concentration on discrete mathematics. IE's deal with systems that are measured discretely, rather than metrics which are continuous.

What are the basic sciences for Industrial Engineering?:

Because Industrial Engineering deals with the "way" something is done, IE tools emphasize "methods" of understanding systems. The fundamental sciences that deal with methodology are mathematical sciences, namely mathematics, statistics, and computer science. System characterization thus employ mathematical, statistical, and computer models and methods and give direct rise to Industrial Engineering tools such as optimization, stochastic processes, and simulation. Industrial Engineering specialty courses therefore use these "basic sciences" and the IE tools to understand traditional production elements as economic analysis, production planning, facilities design, materials handling, manufacturing systems and processes, job analysis, and so forth.

Don't all engineers use the same math?:

All engineers, including IE's, take mathematics through calculus and differential equations. Industrial Engineering is different in that it is based on "discrete variable" math, whereas all other engineering is based on "continuous variable" math. Thus IE's emphasize the use of linear algebra and difference equations, as opposed to the use of differential equations which are so prevalent in other engineering disciplines. This emphasis becomes evident in optimization of production systems in that we are sequencing orders, scheduling batches, determining the number of materials handling units, arranging factory layouts, finding sequences of motions, etc. Industrial Engineers deal almost exclusively with systems of discrete components. Thus IE's have a different mathematical culture.

Why is statistics important in Industrial Engineering?:

All IE's take at least one course in probability and one course in statistics. Industrial Engineering speciality courses that follow these include quality control, simulation, and stochastic processes. Further the traditional courses in production planning, economic risk assessment, and facilities planning employ statistical models for understanding these systems. Some of the other engineering disciplines take some probability and statistics, but none have integrated these topics more into their study of systems.

How does computing influence Industrial Engineering?:

Probably no other aspect of technology has greater potential impact on Industrial Engineering than computing.  Like all other engineers, IE's take computer programming. Specific Industrial Engineering specialty courses like real-time control and simulation expanding the role of computer science principles within Industrial Engineering. Further, most all Industrial Engineering tools are now computer based, with growing recognition that computer assisted analysis and design of production systems hold new untapped potential. Of special note is that computer simulation involves using specialized computer languages for modeling production systems and analyzing their behavior on the computer, before experimentation with real systems begin. In addition, both computer science and Industrial Engineering share a common interest in discrete mathematical structures.

What are the specialties of Industrial Engineering?

Industrial Engineering at the undergraduate level is generally seen as a composition of four areas. First is operations research, which provides methods for the general analysis and design of systems. Operations Research (OR) includes optimization, decision analysis, stochastic processes, and simulation.
Production generally includes such aspects as economic analysis, production planning and control, quality control, facilities design, and other aspects of world-class manufacturing.
Third is manufacturing processes and systems. Manufacturing process deals directly with materials forming, cutting, shaping, planning, etc. Manufacturing systems focus on the integration of manufacturing process, usually through computer control and communications.
Finally ergonomics deals with the human equation. Physical ergonomics view the human as a biomechanical device while informational ergonomics examines the cognitive aspects of humans.

What Industrial Engineers Do

Industrial engineering is about choices. Other engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas. IE gives practitioners the opportunity to work in a variety of businesses. Many practitioners say that an industrial engineering education offers the best of both worlds: an education in both engineering and business.

The most distinctive aspect of industrial engineering is the flexibility it offers. Whether it is shortening a rollercoaster line, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide, or manufacturing superior automobiles, all these challenges share the common goal of saving companies money and increasing efficiencies.
As companies adopt management philosophies of continuous productivity and quality

improvement to survive in the increasingly competitive world market, the need for industrial engineers is growing. Why? Industrial engineers are the only engineering professionals trained specifically to be productivity and quality improvement specialists.

Industrial engineers figure out how to do things better. They engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. They work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, energy, and other commodities. This is why many industrial engineers end up being promoted into management positions.
Many people are misled by the term industrial engineer. It is not just

about manufacturing. It also encompasses service industries, with many IEs employed in entertainment industries, shipping and logistics businesses, and health care organizations.

Industrial Engineers  make processes better in the following ways:

* More efficient and more profitable business practices
* Better customer service and product quality
* Improved efficiency
* Increased ability to do more with less
* Making work safer, faster, easier, and more rewarding
* Helping companies produce more products quickly
* Making the world safer through better designed products
* Reducing costs associated with new technologies

What Is Broadcasting Engineering?

What is Broadcasting Engineering?

Broadcasting engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering, which deals with radio and television broadcasting. Audio engineering and RF engineering are also essential parts of broadcast engineering, being their own subsets of electrical engineering.

Broadcasting engineering involves both the studio end and the transmitter end (the entire airchain), as well as remote broadcasts. Every station has a broadcast engineer, though one may now serve an entire station group in a city, or be a contract engineer who essentially freelances his services to several stations (often in small media markets) as needed

Broadcast Engineer Duties

Modern duties of a broadcast engineer include maintaining broadcast automation systems for the studio and automatic transmission systems for the transmitter plant. There are also important duties regarding radio towers, which must be maintained with proper lighting and painting. Occasionally a station's engineer must deal with complaints of RF interference, particularly after a station has made changes to its transmission facilities.

Broadcast engineers are generally required to have knowledge in the following areas, from conventional video broadcast systems to modern Information Technology:

* Video Standard / High Definition.
* Video compression - DV25, MPEG, DVB or ATSC.
* Television studios - Broadcast Cameras and lenses.
* Vision Mixers or Production switchers.
* Digital server playout technologies.
* Broadcast automation
* Disk storage  RAID / NAS / SAN technologies.
* Archives Tape archives or grid storage technologies.
* Networking.
* Operating systems  Windows / Linux.
* Post production  Capture and Non-linear editing.
* RF satellite up-linking  High powered Amplifiers.
* RF satellite down-linking Band detection, carrier detection and IRD tuning etc.
* Health and safety.
* Above mentioned requirements vary from station to station

On Digital Broadcasting Engineering

In addition to traditional duties, the conversion to digital broadcasting means new facilities at (and to) the transmitter site, including new radio antennas and entire site relocations, and often the sharing of towers and even antennas among different stations. Broadcast engineers must now be well-versed in digital television or digital radio, in addition to analogue principles.

Digital audio and digital video have revolutionized broadcast engineering in many respects.  Broadcast studios and control rooms are now already digital in large part, using non-linear editing and digital signal processing for what used to take a great deal of time or money, if it was even possible at all. Mixing consoles for both audio and video are continuing to become more digital in the 2000s, as is the computer storage used to keep digital media libraries. Effects processing and TV graphics can now be done much more easily and professionally as well.

Other devices used in broadcast engineering are telephone hybrids, broadcast delays, and dead air alarms. See the glossary of broadcast engineering terms for further explanations.

Broadcasting  Engineering Services

Broadcast stations often call upon outside engineering services for certain needs. For example, because structural engineering is generally not a direct part of broadcast engineering, tower companies usually design broadcast towers.

Other companies specialize in both broadcast engineering and broadcast law, which are both essential when making an application to a national broadcasting authority. This is especially critical in North America, where stations bear the entire burden of proving that their proposed facilities will not cause interference and are the best use of the radio spectrum. Such companies now have special software that can map projected radio propagation and terrain shielding, as well as lawyers that will defend the applications before the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), or the equivalent authorities in some other countries.

What Is Operations Research?

What is Operations Research?


Operations Research (OR) in the US, and Operational Research in the UK, is an interdisciplinary branch of applied mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima (cost loss, lowering of risk, etc) of some objective function. The eventual intention behind using operations research is to elicit a best possible solution to a problem mathematically, which improves or optimizes the performance of the system.

The terms operations research and management science are often used synonymously. When a distinction is drawn, management science generally implies a closer relationship to the problems of business management. Operations research also closely relates to Industrial engineering. Industrial engineering takes more of an engineering point of view, and industrial engineers typically consider OR techniques to be a major part of their toolset.

Some of the primary tools used by operations researchers are statistics, optimization, stochastic process, queueing theory, game theory, graph theory, decision analysis, and simulation. Because of the computational nature of these fields, OR also has ties to computer science, and operations researchers regularly use custom-written or off-the-shelf software.

Operations research is distinguished by its frequent use to examine an entire system, rather than concentrating only on specific elements (though this is often done as well). An operations researcher faced with a new problem is expected to determine which techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, and constraints on time and computing power. For this and other reasons, the human element of OR is vital. Like any other tools, OR techniques cannot solve problems by themselves.

Scope of Operations research

A few examples of applications in which operations research is currently used include:

* designing the layout of a factory for efficient flow of materials
* constructing a telecommunications network at low cost while still guaranteeing QoS (quality of service) or QoE (Quality of Experience) if particular connections become very busy or get damaged
* road traffic management and 'one way' street allocations i.e. allocation problems.
* determining the routes of school buses (or city buses) so that as few buses are needed as possible
* designing the layout of a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time (therefore reducing cost)
* managing the flow of raw materials and products in a supply chain based on uncertain demand for the finished products
* efficient messaging and customer response tactics
* roboticizing or automating human-driven operations processes
* globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper materials, labor, land or other productivity inputs
* managing freight transportation and delivery systems
* scheduling:

* personnel staffing
* manufacturing steps
* project tasks
* network data traffic: these are known as queueing models or queueing systems.
* sports events and their television coverage
* blending of raw materials in oil refineries

Operations research is also used extensively in government where evidence-based policy is used.

A Short History of Operations Research

Some say that Charles Babbage (1791-1871) is the "father of operations research" because his research into the cost of transportation and sorting of mail led to England's universal "Penny Post" in 1840. The modern field of operations research arose during World War II. Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett, Cecil Gordon, C. H. Waddington, Owen Wansbrough-Jones and Frank Yates, and in the United States with George Dantzig looked for ways to make better decisions in such areas as logistics and training schedules. After the war it began to be applied to similar problems in industry.

Blackett's team made a number of crucial analyses which aided the war effort. Britain introduced the convoy system to reduce shipping losses, but while the principle of using warships to accompany merchant ships was generally accepted, it was unclear whether it was better for convoys to be small or large. Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member, so small convoys can travel faster. It was also argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect.

On the other hand, large convoys could deploy more warships against an attacker. Blackett's staff showed that the losses suffered by convoys depended largely on the number of escort vessels present, rather than on the overall size of the convoy. Their conclusion, therefore, was that a few large convoys are more defensible than many small ones.

In another piece of work, Blackett's team analyzed a report of a survey carried out by RAF Bomber Command. For the survey, Bomber Command inspected all bombers returning from bombing raids over Germany over a particular period. All damage inflicted by German air defenses was noted and the recommendation was given that armour be added in the most heavily damaged areas. Their suggestion to remove some of the crew so that an aircraft loss would result in fewer personnel loss was rejected by RAF command.

Blackett's team instead made the surprising and counter-intuitive recommendation that the armour be placed in the areas which were completely untouched by damage, according to the survey. They reasoned that the survey was biased, since it only included aircraft that successfully came back from Germany. The untouched areas were probably vital areas, which, if hit, would result in the loss of the aircraft.

When the Germans organized their air defenses into the Kammhuber Line, it was realized that if the RAF bombers were to fly in a bomber stream they could overwhelm the night fighters who flew in individual cells directed to their targets by ground controllers. It was then a matter of calculating the statistical loss from collisions against the statistical loss from night fighters to calculate how close the bombers should fly to minimize RAF losses.

It is known as "operational research" in the United Kingdom ("operational analysis" within the UK military and UK Ministry of Defense, where OR stands for "Operational Requirement") and as "operations research" in most other English-speaking countries, though OR is a common abbreviation everywhere.

With expanded techniques and growing awareness, OR is no longer limited to only operations, and the proliferation of computer data collection has relieved analysts of much of the more mundane research. But the OR analyst must still know how a system operates, and learn to perform even more sophisticated research than ever before. In every sense the name OR still applies, more than a half century later.

What Is Mechanical Engineering?

What is Mechanical Engineering?

Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy. Mechanical engineers use these principles and others in the design and analysis of automobiles, aircraft, heating & cooling systems, watercraft, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, medical devices and more.

Mechanical engineering could be found in many ancient and medieval societies throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287 BC-212 BC), and Heron of Alexandria (10-70 AD) deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition. In ancient China, there were also many notable figures, such as Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) and Ma Jun (200-265 AD). The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020-1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before any escapement could be found in clocks of medieval Europe, as well as the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.

During the early 19th century in Britain mechanical engineering developed as a separate field to provide manufacturing machines and the engines to power them. The first British professional society of civil engineers was formed in 1818; that for mechanical engineers followed in 1847. In the United States, the first mechanical engineering professional society was formed in 1880, making it the third oldest type of engineering behind civil (1852) and mining & metallurgical (1871). "The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. An engineering education is based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science; this is followed by courses emphasizing the application of this knowledge to a specific field and studies in the social sciences and humanities to give the engineer a broader education.

What About Electromechanical Engineering?

Electromechanical Engineering is an  integration of mechanical, electrical and electronic engineering. It lays emphasis on the use of advanced electronics technology and computers in product design and manufacturing such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer aided manufacturing (CAM), computer aided process planning (CAPP), flexible manufacturingsystem (FMS), computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS), materials requirement planning (MRP) and management information system (MIS).

These technologies form a new discipline called Mechatronics. The degree offers education and training which would enable the graduates to work in product design, manufacturing, process control and automation, quality assurance and control, production systems, planning and control. Graduates can engage in service and maintenance for transportation and building industry as well as in sales, marketing and management.

Education and Training in Mechanical Engineering

Bachelor of Engineering or Science degree in Mechanical Engineering is offered at many universities in the United States, and similar programs are offered at universities in most countries.

In Canada, India, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan, U.S., and a number of African countries, Mechanical Engineering programs typically take 4 to 5 years and result in a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSc)or a Bachelor of Technology (BTech), Bachelor in Engineering (B.E or BEng), or a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.).

In Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and many other central and east European countries (Romania, Serbia, Croatia, etc) the (BSc) and (BTech) are available as an intermediate (or final) 4 years degree, however the 5-6 years "Diplomas";(Dipl), (Dipl-Ing), (Dipl-Tech); are still the most relevant degrees.

Some countries like Malaysia, Singapore, and Nigeria offer a 4 or 5 year Bachelor of Science (BSc) / Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) degree with Honors (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela, among others) the (BSc) or (BTech) programs have not been adopted, the formal name for the degree is just "Mechanical Engineer" and the course work is based on a 5-6 years training. In Australia and New Zealand, requirements are typically a 4 years Bachelor of Engineering (BE or BEng) degree, equivalent to the British MEng level. A BEng degree differ from a BSc degree in that the students obtain a broader education consisting of information relevant to various engineering disciplines.

Most undergraduate Mechanical Engineering programs in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards between universities.

Some Mechanical Engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (MEng.Mgt, MEM), a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (EngD, PhD) or an Engineer's degree. The Master's and Engineer's degrees may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.

Mechanical Engineering Degree Programs

Mechanical engineering programs generally cover the same fundamental subjects. Universities in the United States offering ABET-accredited programs in mechanical engineering are required to show their students can "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[4] This is to ensure a minimum level of competence among graduating engineers and to inspire confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the University's major area(s) of research. Fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering include:

* statics & dynamics
* strength of materials & solid mechanics,
* instrumentation and measurement,
* thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and refrigeration / air conditioning,
* fluid mechanics/fluid dynamics,
* mechanism design (including kinematics and dynamics),
* manufacturing technology or processes,
* hydraulics & pneumatics,
* engineering design,
* mechatronics and/or control theory,
* drafting, CAD (usually including Solid modeling), and CAM.

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, and physics. Most mechanical engineering programs include several semesters of calculus, as well as advanced mathematical concepts which may include differential equations and partial differential equations, linear and modern algebra, and differential geometry, among others.

In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as mechatronics / robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.

Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. Mechanical engineering students usually hold one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university.

License and Certification

Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the UK, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union). Not all mechanical engineers choose to become licensed; those that do can be distinguished as Chartered or Professional Engineers by the post-nominal title P.E., P. Eng., or C.Eng., as in: Ryan Jones, P.Eng.

In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer, an Engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam, work a given number of years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT),  pass the Principles and Practice or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exam.

In the United States, the requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), website, a national non-profit representing all states. In the UK, current graduates require a MSc, MEng or BEng (Hons) in order to become chartered through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

"In most modern countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a Professional Engineer or a Chartered Engineer." In the USA and Canada, only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients.". This requirement is written into state and provincial legislation, such as Quebec's Engineer Act. In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.

What is Accounting?

Guide to Career in Accounting

What is Accounting?

It's one of the best jobs in the world in terms of high compensation and speedy career placement after graduation. It can also be described as "a system by which economic information is identified, recorded, summarized and reported for the use of decision makers". (Source: Vault Career Library)

Since an education in accounting can be used in so many business applications, AITOnline.com lists certificates, associate degrees, bachelor degrees and graduate degrees. Most jobs require at least a bachelor's degree in accounting or a related field. Jobseekers who obtain professional recognition through certification or licensure, a master's degree, or specialized expertise will have an advantage in the job market. And now that computers handle the bulk of the "bean counting" functions of accounting, professionals spend more time working on in depth analysis and as part of decision making teams.

If you are considering a career in accounting you should have an aptitude for mathematics and be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly. You must then be able to clearly communicate your results to clients and managers. The 2 newest study areas in accounting degrees are ethics and computer science. High standards of integrity are important in accounting because millions of financial statement users can rely on your results.

Keeping up with industry standards and technological applications is crucial in maintaining a successful, progressive career in accounting. Even accountants with college degrees continue to seek extra training or enroll in refresher courses or work towards more specialized accounting degrees. Online accounting degree students are part of the 10-20% annual increase of accountants - using the invaluable opportunity to upgrade their skills online and at their own pace.

Steady advancement is one of the most appealing aspects of professional accounting. Accounting will remain a competitive profession for many years to come. Ferguson's Top Careers for Business Graduates confirms that, "competition for jobs will remain, certification requirements will become more rigorous, and accountants and auditors with the highest degrees will be much sought after."

Career Education in Accounting
Undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs

A Bachelor of Science Degree in Accounting prepares you to measure and report the financial events of an individual or entity. Additionally, it provides you with the ability to understand the elements of the audit process, analyze financial statements, and apply accounting information to management-level decisions.

Also available are Bachelor of Science in management accounting degrees. These can provide you with broad business skills and specialized knowledge in financial accounting, reporting, operations, and other critical areas, but may not be applicable to tax accounting, auditing or used towards CPA credentials.

An associate's degree in accounting prepares students for entry-level jobs in accounting such as accounting assistant, bookkeeper, or management trainee. It can be a step towards national accreditation exams in accountancy. As a graduate you may qualify to work as a tax preparer, auditing clerk, or accounting assistant.

An Accounting and Finance Certificate will open up entry-level career opportunities with the myriad of organizations that require accurate financial record-keeping, effective cash management, and investment strategy. Consider the option of working as an entry-level accountant in business administration, operations, or a financial operations department.

On the other end of the spectrum is the Master's Degree in Accounting. Based on the common career path of accounting professionals, obtaining this level of education is usually done in conjunction with working towards CPA credentials. A Master's Degree is the fifth year of education in accounting, and obtaining a CPA is done after 5 year's of education. Designation as a certified management accountant (CMA), and chartered financial analyst (CFA) are other "next steps" after a Master's Degree.

What about an MBA?

An MBA (Master of Business Administration) is not required for career advancements in accounting, but it is preferred and can even be a requirement for positions like financial analysts where a broader range of knowledge may be required. Other related job titles include business analyst, associate consultant, and research associates.

What can you do with a University Degree in Accounting?

Career Specializations within Accounting

The accounting field has a large degree of mobility and your advancement depends on your continued education and certification. Accountants can specialize in different businesses or fields, and according to particular accounting functions.

Accounting can be divided into four major fields of accounting as defined by Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor:

1. Public Accountants
2. Management Accountants
3. government Accountants
4. Auditors and Internal Auditors

Careers in Public Accounting focus on auditing and tax functions. New public accountants usually work for several clients on their own or as part of a firm providing services. Advancement to positions with more responsibility takes 1 or 2 years, and to senior positions in a few more. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or partners; open their own public accounting firms; transfer to executive positions in management accounting; or internal auditors in private firms. Larger firms prefer to hire Master's Degree graduates. The salary range for an associate accountant is $25,000 - 38,000; for a senior public accountant it's between $33,000-52,000; and a manager averages between $45,000 and 74,000.

Management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or trainees for other accounting positions within a corporation. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Many senior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance.

The average starting salary for a management account in 2000 was between $28 -36,000. A minimum of a bachelor's degree in accounting and 2 year's experience is required and professional licensing is recommended. The focus is on the reporting functions within the organization to contribute to planning and decision making. A management accountant also manages the reporting to stock holders, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities.

Government Accountants can work at any level of government to analyze and oversee the performance and allocation of funds. At the federal level, opportunities exist in such diverse areas as the Department of Defense, the IRS, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.


Internal auditors deal with conducting compliance audits, internal controls and accounting information systems. As they advance in their careers, they can become involved in operational audits and provide recommendations and plans for continued financial improvement within an organization.

The breadth of the industry leads to many areas of specialization such as, General, Budget, Cost, Property, Systems, Forensic, and Tax accountants. Private accountants are also in demand for non-profit organizations who need specialized expertise in tax regulations and policies unique to them.

Private accountants are also in demand for non-profit organizations who need specialized expertise in tax regulations and policies unique to them. The breadth of the industry leads to many areas of specialization such as, General, Budget, Cost, Property, Systems, Forensic, and Tax accountants.

Deciding on which route to take depends on your own personal career and lifestyle goals. Public accounting generally provides higher salaries, variety, and advancement based on merit. Your actual working hours as a Public Accountant are applied to your CPA requirements.

Private accounting is more stable with a fixed location, hours, and job load. Private accountants should get a traditional 4 year degree, but are not required to obtain their CPA as described below. Internal auditors, management accountants and tax professionals can practice without a CPA designation.

Certification and Licensure
Professional recognition through certification or licensure provides a distinct advantage in the job market, so about 40% of accountants are certified.

A CPA (Certified Public Accountant) designation is earned through a combination of experience and passing the Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Each state has its own requirements for certification.

In general, to become a CPA you must complete:

* 150 credit hours of college level education which translates to 5 year's of college and graduate level work. The additional year allows for increased development of communication and analysis skills and technical competence.
* Passing grades on all 4 parts of the Uniform Certified Public Accountants Exam.
* Your state's requisite accounting work experience - usually about 2 years.

Certification not only demonstrates your professional commitment and expertise, it is crucial in certain accounting functions. For example, only a CPA may sign an audit option, which is the official declaration that prepared financial statements reasonably represent a company's financial position. Only about 25% of people who take the CPA exam pass all 4 parts on their first try.

The AICPA also offers members with valid CPA certificates the option to receive the Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV), Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP), or Personal Financial Specialist (PFS) designations.

The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) confers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon applicants who complete a bachelor's degree in accounting or attain a minimum score on specified graduate school entrance exams.

The Canadian equivalent of a CPA is a Chartered Accountant (CA). For more information on Canadian Associations and Licensure, see below.

Other Associations and Certifications

Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation (ACAT): The ACAT examination is sponsored by the National Society of Public Accountants. The examination is offered twice a year, in May and December. The six-hour examination is given at over 200 test sites nationwide. ACAT accreditation demonstrates to your clients and/or employer your professional status.

Enrolled Agents Examination: The Enrolled Agents Examination is a comprehensive four-part exam administered once a year by the Internal Revenue Service. The primary benefits of being an enrolled agent are recognition of attaining a high level of knowledge of federal taxation, and eligibility to practice before the IRS.

A Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP): is a CPA certified as a technology professional and recognized for his or her unique ability to bridge the gaps between business and technology. This is a unique credential, unlike other certifications that recognize only a narrow scope of skills.

The Personal Financial Specialist (PFS): is the financial planning specialty accreditation held exclusively by Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) who are members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). CPAs who wish to distinguish themselves within the competitive financial planning marketplace should obtain the PFS credential.

Canadian Certification

The CGA Program of Professional Studies incorporates requirements of education, examination and experience that individuals must meet to become a CGA. The Association is recognized internationally as a leading developer and provider of competency-based professional accounting education that integrates ethics, information technology, and the best methods of distance learning.

A university degree, required for certification, provides the foundation for the core professional competencies that are acquired through the CGA Program of Professional Studies. While students may attain the degree from any recognized institution, CGA-Canada offers integrated degree opportunities through partnerships with major Canadian degree-granting institutions. The Canadian Association of Business Valuators is a federally chartered, non-profit professional association. The founders of the Association realized that introduction of the taxation of capital gains in Canada would increase the general need for business valuations. Accordingly, they established an organization dedicated to ensuring professionalism and high standards in the field of business valuations.

The technical nature of the material covered requires that students should have a basic knowledge of accounting and financial statement analysis, acquired at the equivalent of at least a university undergraduate level. Although not required, possession of an undergraduate or graduate degree in accounting/finance, or a designation such as CA, CGA, CMA, CFA or equivalent is encouraged.

How to Become a Chartered Accountant

Chartered Accountants (CAs) are business professionals who generally work in four key areas. About 40% of CAs are in public practice, while the other 60% are employed in industry, government, or education.

The skills and abilities, and the proficiency you are expected to achieve, are set out in The CA Candidates' Competency Map: Understanding the Professional Competencies of CAs.

Minimum requirements have been established in each of these components to assist you in your development as a CA candidate. Check with your Provincial Institute/Ordre for specifics.

* Education: A university degree with specific business course credits, as well as the professional program of your province or territory. This level of education provides a sound base of knowledge, skill and values necessary to be able to demonstrate competence.
* Experience: Work experience in a recognized training office under the supervision of experienced CAs is also required. The training you receive during this period will greatly assist you in the development of the skills, attributes and values of a competent CA.
* Evaluation: Assessment is the key to determining competence. CA candidates continually receive assessments throughout their development - in university programs, in professional education programs and on the job. All CA candidates must sit the profession's Uniform Evaluation - our UFE- which is the capstone evaluation of a process of developing and assessing the knowledge, skills and professional values required of a CA.

These 3 elements ensure that when you earn your CA designation, you will have acquired all the competencies that the marketplace expects of a CA.

The Uniform Evaluation Exam

All Canadian-trained CAs must write the same, profession specific, uniform evaluation exam (UFE). This allows us to set one single, high standard that is nationally and internationally recognized. The evaluation challenges candidates to demonstrate their proficiency in the CA competencies.

The UFE is set by the CA profession's Board of Evaluators. It consists of 3 papers written over 3 days - 1 per day. These papers challenge you to demonstrate your competence by responding to simulations/business scenarios that represent the kinds of challenges you have faced during your work experience, or will soon be facing in your professional career as a CA.

By C.Nich

Contributing writer to World Wide Learn


*References: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook

What Is Telecommunications Engineering?

What is Telecommunications Engineering?

Telecommunications Engineering deals with the transmission of information across a channel such as a co-axial cable, optical fibre or free space. Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags, or heliograph. In modern times, telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic transmitters such as the telephone, television, radio or computer. Early inventors in the field of telecommunication include Antonio Meucci, Alexander Graham Bell, Guglielmo Marconi and John Logie Baird. Telecommunication is an important part of the world economy and the telecommunication industry's revenue has been placed at just under 3 percent of the gross world product

Telecommunications engineering applies results from many other fields of science and technology. It utilizes mathematics, information theory, system theory, signal processing, electronics, information technology, and the essential results of the science of statistics. Telecommunications engineering covers the basic technology, systems, and software tools needed to build communication networks and network services.

Basic elements of a Telecommunications System

A telecommunication system consists of three basic elements:

* a transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal;

* a transmission medium that carries the signal; and,

* a receiver that receives the signal and converts it back into usable information.

For example, in a radio broadcast the broadcast tower is the transmitter, free space is the transmission medium and the radio is the receiver. Often telecommunication systems are two-way with a single device acting as both a transmitter and receiver or transceiver. For example, a mobile phone is a transceiver.

Telecommunication over a phone line is called point-to-point communication because it is between one transmitter and one receiver. Telecommunication through radio broadcasts is called broadcast communication because it is between one powerful transmitter and numerous receivers.

Analogue or Digital: Signals can be either analogue or digital. In an analogue signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values (for example ones and zeros). During transmission the information contained in analogue signals will be degraded by noise. Conversely, unless the noise exceeds a certain threshold, the information contained in digital signals will remain intact. This noise resistance represents a key advantage of digital signals over analogue signals.

Networks: A collection of transmitters, receivers or transceivers that communicate with each other is known as a network. Digital networks may consist of one or more routers that route information to the correct user. An analogue network may consist of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. For both types of network, repeaters may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat attenuation that can render the signal indistinguishable from noise.

Channels: A channel is a division in a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams of information. For example, a radio station may broadcast at 96.1 MHz while another radio station may broadcast at 94.5 MHz. In this case, the medium has been divided by frequency and each channel has received a separate frequency to broadcast on. Alternatively, one could allocate each channel a recurring segment of time over which to broadcast” this is known as time-division multiplexing and is sometimes used in digital communication.

Modulation: The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. Modulation can be used to represent a digital message as an analogue waveform. This is known as keying and several keying techniques exist (these include phase-shift keying, frequency-shift keying and amplitude-shift keying). Bluetooth, for example, uses phase-shift keying to exchange information between devices.

Modulation can also be used to transmit the information of analogue signals at higher frequencies. This is helpful because low-frequency analogue signals cannot be effectively transmitted over free space. Hence the information from a low-frequency analogue signal must be superimposed on a higher-frequency signal (known as a carrier wave) before transmission. There are several different modulation schemes available to achieve this (two of the most basic being amplitude modulation and frequency modulation). An example of this process is a DJ's voice being superimposed on a 96 MHz carrier wave using frequency modulation (the voice would then be received on a radio as the channel 96 FM)

Telecommunications Engineers

Telecommunications Engineers or Telecom Engineers come in a variety of different types from basic circuit designers to strategic mass developments. A Telecom Engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex Electronic Switching Systems to copper telephone facilities and fiber optics.

Telecommunications is a diverse field of engineering including electronics, civil, structural, and electrical engineering as well as being a political and social ambassador, a little bit of accounting and a lot of project management. Ultimately, Telecom Engineers are responsible for providing the method that customers can get telephone and high speed data services.

Telecom Engineers use a variety of different equipment and transport mediums available from a multitude of manufacturers to design the telecom network infrastructure. The most common mediums, often referred to as plant in the telecom industry, used by telecommunications companies today are copper, coaxial cable, fiber, and radio.

Telecom Engineers are often expected, as most engineers are, to provide the best solution possible for the lowest cost to the company. This often leads to creative solutions to problems that often would have been designed differently without the budget constraints dictated by modern society. In the earlier days of the telecom industry massive amounts of cable were placed that were never used or have been replaced by modern technology such as fiber optic cable and digital multiplexing techniques.

Telecom Engineers are also responsible for keeping the records of the companies equipment and facilities and assigning appropriate accounting codes for purposes of taxes and maintenance. As telecom engineers responsible for budgeting and overseeing projects and keeping records of equipment, facilities and plant the telecom engineer is not only an engineer but an accounting assistant or bookkeeper (if not an accountant) and a project manager as well.

Who Is An Engineer?

Nature of the Work

Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. Their work is the link between scientific discoveries and the commercial applications that meet societal and consumer needs.
Many engineers develop new products. During this process, they consider several factors. For example, in developing an industrial robot, engineers precisely specify the functional requirements; design and test the robots components; integrate the components to produce the final design; and evaluate the design's overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to the development of many different products, such as chemicals, computers, power plants, helicopters, and toys.

In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. These engineers supervise production in factories, determine the causes of component failure, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects.

Engineers use computers extensively to produce and analyze designs; to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates; to generate specifications for parts; and to monitor product quality and control process efficiency. Nanotechnology, which involves the creation of high-performance materials and components by integrating atoms and molecules, also is introducing entirely new principles to the design process.
Most engineers specialize. Following are details on the 17 engineering specialties covered in the Federal Government Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. Numerous other specialties are recognized by professional societies, and each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering, and materials engineering includes ceramic, metallurgical, and polymer engineering. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials.
Aerospace engineers design, develop, and test aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles and supervise the manufacture of these products. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods.
They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.

Agricultural engineers apply knowledge of engineering technology and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological resources. Because of this, they are also referred to as biological and agricultural engineers. They design agricultural machinery, equipment, sensors, processes, and structures, such as those used for crop storage. Some engineers specialize in areas such as power systems and machinery design; structures and environment engineering; and food and bio-process engineering.
They develop ways to conserve soil and water and to improve the processing of agricultural products. Agricultural engineers often work in research and development, production, sales, or management.

Biomedical engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combining their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices. Many do research, along with life scientists, chemists, and medical scientists, to develop and evaluate systems and products such as artificial organs, prostheses (artificial devices that replace missing body parts), instrumentation, medical information systems, and health management and care delivery systems.

Biomedical engineers may also design devices used in various medical procedures, imaging systems such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and devices for automating insulin injections or controlling body functions. Most engineers in this specialty need a sound background in another engineering specialty, such as mechanical or electronics engineering, in addition to specialized biomedical training. Some specialties within biomedical engineering include bio-materials, bio-mechanics, medical imaging, rehabilitation engineering, and orthopedic engineering.

Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals and biochemicals. They design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing, plan and test methods of manufacturing products and treating byproducts, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing, such as those producing energy, electronics, food, clothing, and paper.

They also work in health care, biotechnology, and business services. Chemical engineers apply principles of physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as chemistry. Some may specialize in a particular chemical process, such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular field, such as nano-materials, or in the development of specific products. They must be aware of all aspects of chemicals manufacturing and how the manufacturing process affects the environment and the safety of workers and consumers.

Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. They must consider many factors in the design process, from the construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and potential environmental hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes.
Civil engineering, considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines, encompasses many specialties. The major ones are structural, water resources, construction, environmental, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching.

Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test, and oversee the manufacture and installation of computer hardware. Hardware includes computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems, and related equipment such as keyboards, modems, and printers. (Computer software engineers often simply called computer engineers design and develop the software systems that control computers.
These workers are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) The work of computer hardware engineers is very similar to that of electronics engineers in that they may design and test circuits and other electronic components, but computer hardware engineers do that work only as it relates to computers and computer-related equipment. The rapid advances in computer technology are largely a result of the research, development, and design efforts of these engineers.

Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Some of this equipment includes electric motors; machinery controls, lighting, and wiring in buildings; automobiles; aircraft; radar and navigation systems; and power generation, control, and transmission devices used by electric utilities.
Although the terms electrical and electronics engineering often are used interchangeably in academia and industry, electrical engineers have traditionally focused on the generation and supply of power, whereas electronics engineers have worked on applications of electricity to control systems or signal processing. Electrical engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing.

Electronics engineers, except computer are responsible for a wide range of technologies, from portable music players to the global positioning system (GPS), which can continuously provide the location, for example, of a vehicle. Electronics engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electronic equipment such as broadcast and communications systems.
Many electronics engineers also work in areas closely related to computers. However, engineers whose work is related exclusively to computer hardware are considered computer hardware engineers. Electronics engineers specialize in areas such as communications, signal processing, and control systems or have a specialty within one of these areas”control systems or aviation electronics, for example.

Environmental engineers develop solutions to environmental problems using the principles of biology and chemistry. They are involved in water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems.

They conduct research on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects, analyze scientific data, and perform quality-control checks. Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. They study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions, and ozone depletion. They may also be involved in the protection of wildlife. Many environmental engineers work as consultants, helping their clients to comply with regulations, to prevent environmental damage, and to clean up hazardous sites.

Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors prevent harm to people and property by applying knowledge of systems engineering and mechanical, chemical, and human performance principles. Using this specialized knowledge, they identify and measure potential hazards, such as the risk of fires or the dangers involved in handling of toxic chemicals. They recommend appropriate loss prevention measures according to the probability of harm and potential damage.

Health and safety engineers develop procedures and designs to reduce the risk of illness, injury, or damage. Some work in manufacturing industries to ensure the designs of new products do not create unnecessary hazards. They must be able to anticipate, recognize, and evaluate hazardous conditions, as well as develop hazard control methods.

Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production”people, machines, materials, information, and energy”to make a product or provide a service. They are primarily concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology. To maximize efficiency, industrial engineers carefully study the product requirements and design manufacturing and information systems to meet those requirements with the help of mathematical methods and models.

They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, and design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services and determine the most efficient plant locations. Industrial engineers develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related to the work of managers.

Marine engineers and naval architects are involved in the design, construction, and maintenance of ships, boats, and related equipment. They design and supervise the construction of everything from aircraft carriers to submarines, and from sailboats to tankers. Naval architects work on the basic design of ships, including hull form and stability. Marine engineers work on the propulsion, steering, and other systems of ships. Marine engineers and naval architects apply knowledge from a range of fields to the entire design and production process of all water vehicles.

Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing, and testing of the materials used to create a range of products, from computer chips and aircraft wings to golf clubs and snow skis. They work with metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites to create new materials that meet certain mechanical, electrical, and chemical requirements.

They also are involved in selecting materials for new applications. Materials engineers have developed the ability to create and then study materials at an atomic level, using advanced processes to replicate the characteristics of materials and their components with computers. Most materials engineers specialize in a particular material. For example, metallurgical engineers specialize in metals such as steel, and ceramic engineers develop ceramic materials and the processes for making them into useful products such as glassware or fiber optic communication lines.

Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, manufacture, and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Engineers in this discipline work on power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines.

They also work on power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, machine tools, material handling systems, elevators and escalators, industrial production equipment, and robots used in manufacturing. Mechanical engineers also design tools that other engineers need for their work. In addition, mechanical engineers work in manufacturing or agriculture production, maintenance, or technical sales; many become administrators or managers.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and minerals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They design open-pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines.

Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral-processing operations that separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold.
With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers work to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. Mining safety engineers use their knowledge of mine design and practices to ensure the safety of workers and to comply with State and Federal safety regulations. They inspect walls and roof surfaces, monitor air quality, and examine mining equipment for compliance with safety practices.

Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instruments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear plants to generate power. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by the generation of nuclear energy—or on the development of fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear power sources for naval vessels or spacecraft; others find industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials, as in equipment used to diagnose and treat medical problems.

Petroleum engineers search the world for reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. Once these resources are discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, determine the drilling methods to be used, and monitor drilling and production operations. They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas.
Because only a small proportion of oil and gas in a reservoir flows out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force out more of the oil and doing computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to connect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. Because even the best techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods to increase recovery and lower the cost of drilling and production operations.

Work environment.
Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or industrial plants. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites and oil and gas exploration and production sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Some engineers travel extensively to plants or worksites here and abroad.
Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, deadlines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job, requiring engineers to work longer hours.

Why Study Engineering?

Engineers belong to the greatest profession in the world, responsible for almost everything that makes life worth living - from leisure activities to medical treatment, mobile communications to modern transport systems.
Within the wide boundaries of the engineering profession, there are thousands of challenging activities, in areas such as research, development, design, manufacture and operation of products and services. Activities which provide stimulating intellectual challenges with diverse and varied tasks, inevitably involving deadlines, and all added to the satisfaction of real output or delivery.

Demand for good engineers is high, in practically every country in the world. In the IT and electronics sectors in particular, there are world shortages of Chartered and Incorporated Engineers, and unemployment amongst professional engineers is lower than for almost any other profession.

Engineering degrees can lead to a vast number of career opportunities, with graduates in demand in almost every sector of the economy. The word used most often when referring to a career in engineering is variety; and electrical, civil, marine, chemical, software, systems, information and manufacturing engineering offer a host of alternative job opportunities for new graduates. Specializations range from Automation to Power Generation and from Communications to Manufacturing. Within each of these fields, there are opportunities in research, design, development and tests, as well as management, production, marketing and sales. A degree can also provide a passport into the world of education.

Professional engineers also stand a better chance of becoming a chief executive than any other professional, outnumbering accountants by three to one!
The environment in which engineering professionals work has never been more dynamic. New materials, technologies and processes are being developed all the time. Increasing globalization, new markets, and changing employment patterns also mean that an engineering career is now a truly international one.

Education and Training  and Career Advancement

Engineers typically enter the occupation with a bachelor’s degree in an engineering specialty, but some basic research positions may require a graduate degree. Engineers offering their services directly to the public must be licensed. Continuing education to keep current with rapidly changing technology is important for engineers.

Education and training. A bachelor’s degree in engineering is required for almost all entry-level engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a natural science or mathematics occasionally may qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in electrical, electronics, mechanical, or civil engineering.

However, engineers trained in one branch may work in related branches. For example, many aerospace engineers have training in mechanical engineering. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in which engineers may be in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects or to those that more closely match their interests.

Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics and the physical and life sciences. Many programs also include courses in general engineering. A design course, sometimes accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most programs. General courses not directly related to engineering, such as those in the social sciences or humanities, are also often required.

In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer 2-year or 4-year degree programs in engineering technology. These programs, which usually include various hands-on laboratory classes that focus on current issues in the application of engineering principles, prepare students for practical design and production work, rather than for jobs that require more theoretical and scientific knowledge.

Graduates of 4-year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor's degree in engineering. Engineering technology graduates, however, are not qualified to register as professional engineers under the same terms as graduates with degrees in engineering. Some employers regard technology program graduates as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer.

Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions and many research and development programs, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many experienced engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology and broaden their education. Many high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers.

About 1,830 programs at colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in engineering that are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Inc., and there are another 710 accredited programs in engineering technology. ABET accreditation is based on a programs faculty, curriculum, and facilities; the achievement of a programs students; program improvements; and institutional commitment to specific principles of quality and ethics.

Although most institutions offer programs in the major branches of engineering, only a few offer programs in the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some programs emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, whereas others are more theoretical and are designed to prepare students for graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curriculum's and check accreditation's carefully before selecting a college.

Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus) and science (biology, chemistry, and physics), with courses in English, social studies, and humanities. Bachelor's degree programs in engineering typically are designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies.

In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one specialty. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize on the job or in graduate school.

Some engineering schools have agreements with 2-year colleges whereby the college provides the initial engineering education, and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements that allow students who spend 3 years in a liberal arts college studying pre-engineering subjects and 2 years in an engineering school studying core subjects to receive a bachelors degree from each school. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master's degree programs. Some 5-year or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and to finance part of their education.

Licensure (USA). All 50 States and the District of Columbia of the USA require licensure for engineers who offer their services directly to the public. Engineers who are licensed are called professional engineers (PE). This licensure generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and successful completion of a State examination. Recent graduates can start the licensing process by taking the examination in two stages.
The initial Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination can be taken upon graduation. Engineers who pass this examination commonly are called engineers in training (EIT) or engineer interns (EI).

After acquiring suitable work experience, EITs can take the second examination, the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam. Several States have imposed mandatory continuing education requirements for re-licensure. Most States recognize licensure from other States, provided that the manner in which the initial license was obtained meets or exceeds their own licensure requirements. Many civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers are licensed PEs. Independent of licensure, various certification programs are offered by professional organizations to demonstrate competency in specific fields of engineering.

Other qualifications.
Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail oriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Communication abilities are becoming increasingly important as engineers frequently interact with specialists in a wide range of fields outside engineering.

Certification and advancement. Beginning engineering graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in large companies, also may receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As new engineers gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may advance to become technical specialists or to supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some may eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial or sales jobs. In sales, an engineering background enables them to discuss a products technical aspects and assist in product planning, installation, and use.

Numerous professional certifications for engineers exist and may be beneficial for advancement to senior technical or managerial positions. Many certification programs are offered by the professional societies listed as sources of additional information for engineering specialties at the end of this statement.

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